LPAs require employers and employees to follow inefficient and archaic union classifications and labor rules contained in local union collective agreements, which are deferred by default unless specifically addressed in an APL. According to proponents, ASAs can be used by owners of public projects such as school boards or city councils to set goals for local job creation and social welfare goals through the construction projects they apply for. [3] [59] [86] ESAs may contain provisions for targeted recruitment and training quotas. In these cases, government agencies have made the signing of A.A. a condition for working on tax-funded projects. This type of PLA, known as a government-mandated PLA, is different from a PLA voluntarily entered into by contractors for public or private works – as permitted by the NLRA – as well as a PLA ordered by a private entity for a privately funded construction project. Implementing regulations issued since 1992 have impacted the use of state-mandated AAs for federal construction projects, and the recent order issued by President Barack Obama in February 2009 encourages their use by federal agencies. A number of groups oppose the use of SAAs who argue that the agreements do not discriminate against unionized contractors and do not improve efficiency or reduce the cost of construction projects. Studies on A.A. have mixed results, with some studies concluding that ASAs have a positive effect, while others find that agreements increase costs and can have a negative impact on contractors and non-unionized workers.


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