Prior to this paper, it was generally thought that a three-processor system could tolerate a defective processor. This document shows that “Byzantine” errors in which a faulty processor sends inconsistent information to other processors can defeat any conventional three-processor algorithm. (The Byzantine term only appeared [46].) In general, 3n-1 processors are needed to tolerate n errors. However, when digital signatures are used, 2n-1 processors are sufficient. This document presented the problem of managing Byzantine errors. I think it also contains the first specific explanation of the problem of consensus. I am often wrongly credited with inventing the problem of Byzantine arrangement. The problem was formulated by people who worked on SIFT (see [30]) before I arrived at SRI. I had already discovered and written the problem of Byzantine errors [29]. (I don`t know if it was before or at the same time as his discovery at SRI.) However, people at SRI had a much simpler and more elegant statement about the problem than there were in [29].

We present networks of a limited degree and a fully polynomid scheme agreed almost everywhere, which is very likely to tolerate faulty processors located at random, where processors are independent with a constant probability. This research was conducted while the second author was at the Hebrew University. Reliable computer for critical applications 2 p. 243-260 | Quotes as. My other article on this document was to write it. Writing is hard work, and without risk of loss, researchers outside of science are generally less publishing than their academic counterparts. I wrote a first project that displeased Schostak so much that he completely rewrote it to produce the final version. Copyright © 1980 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. Permission to make digital or hard copies of parts or any such work for personal or class use is granted free of charge, provided that copies are not manufactured or distributed for profit or commercial purposes and copies bear this notification and full quote on the first page. Copyright in components of this work belonging to members other than the CMA must be considered.

The abstract with the credit is allowed. To copy by other means, publish, post on servers or redistribute them in lists, you need a specific authorization and/or a fee. Ask For permissions from Dept Publications, ACM Inc., fax (212) 869-0481 or permissions@acm.org. The final version of this article is available in ACM`s digital library –www.acm.org/dl/. This work was partially sponsored by Computational Logic, Inc. of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center (NAS1-18878). The opinions and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the official, either explicit or implied, guidelines of Computational Logic, Inc., NASA Langley Research Center or the U.S. government. We thank our NASA sponsors, especially Ricky Butler, for providing invaluable advice on the formulation of this problem and our colleagues at Computational Logic for building and maintaining a wonderful research environment.

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