Seven other states signed the Paris Agreement but did not ratify it. The climate conference and debate on the text, including the ban on transfer credits, are due to end on Friday. On Wednesday night in Australia, it was not clear whether an agreement would be reached. Since November 2020, 194 states and the European Union have signed the agreement. 188 countries and the EU, which account for about 79% of global greenhouse gas emissions, have ratified the agreement or have joined the agreement, including China and India, the countries with the first and third CO2 emissions among UNFCCC members.    All 197 UNFCCC members have signed or joined. On November 4, 2019, the United States informed the custodian of its withdrawal from the agreement, which will take effect exactly one year after that date.  The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that deals with the reduction, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020. The agreement aims to address the threat of global climate change by keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century and to continue efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. The professors, all from Australian universities, argued that the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement were “completely separate treaties”. As such, they stated that the Kyoto appropriations could only be used to achieve the objectives of the Paris Agreement, if this had been decided and agreed by all the contracting parties to the agreement. “Australia is largely on fire for climate change and I don`t understand why the Australian government is looking for ways to weaken the Paris agreement so that it and others can do less to resolve the climate crisis,” Tong said. According to the report, Australia does not appear to have met its commitment to reduce its target from 5% below 2000 levels to 15% by 2020 if the world achieves a comprehensive treaty capable of limiting its emissions to less than 450 parts per million carbon dioxide atmospheres. The Paris agreement could limit emissions to this level. The language of the agreement was negotiated by representatives of 197 parties at the 21st UNFCCC Conference of the Parties in Paris and agreed on 12 December 2015.   The agreement was signed at UN Headquarters in New York from 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017 by states and regional economic integration organisations parties to the UNFCCC (convention).  The agreement stated that it would only enter into force if 55 countries that produce at least 55% of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to a list drawn up in 2015) ratify, accept, approve or adhere to the agreement.  On April 1, 2016, the United States and China, which together account for nearly 40% of global emissions, issued a joint statement confirming that the two countries would sign the Paris Climate Agreement.  175 contracting parties (174 states and the European Union) signed the agreement on the first day of its signing.   On the same day, more than 20 countries announced plans to join the accession as soon as possible in 2016.
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